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Section 1 Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence__1__firm’s work, too.
Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.__2__, firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research and development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking__3__for making investments for the future.
The researchers wanted to know if the__4__and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would__5__the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness__6__by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.
__7__enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were__8__.But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities__9__why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various__10__that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was__11__to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally__12__even after accounting for these things.
The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors__13__to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less__14__managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.” The relationship was__15__stronger in places where happiness was spread more__16__.Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.
__17__ this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least__18__at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help__19__how executives think about the future. “It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward-thinking and creative and__20__R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.
1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when
2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion
3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary
4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism
5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change
6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed
7. [A] Sure [B] Odd [C] Unfortunate [D] Often
8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered
9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize
10. [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods
11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable
12. [A] resumed [B] held [C]emerged [D] broke
13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D]compare
14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D]experienced
15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never
16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally
17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since
18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes
19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share 20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send out
1. [標準答案] [C]how
[選項分析] 根據語境，“新發現表明：快樂可能會影響工作__的穩定。”[A] 為什么 [B] 哪里 [C] 怎樣，多么 [D] 當…時候。根據語義分析，C選項填入原文，譯為“快樂可能會影響工作是有多么穩定”，C為正確選項。
2. [標準答案] [B]In particular
[選項分析] [A] 反過來 [B] 尤其是 [C] 相反 [D] 總的來說 根據前文語境，第二段第一句譯為“根據近期的研究，擁有更多快樂的人的公司會投資更多”。而第二句“_______那些在快樂氛圍中的公司會做更多的研發以及發展。“第二句是在第一句的基礎上進一步強調說明，因此B選項更符合語境要求。
3. [標準答案] [D]necessary
[選項分析] [A]充足的 [B] 著名的 [C] 完美的 [D] 必要的 首先，根據本句題干 “That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for the future.”譯為“因為快樂與對未來投資有______長遠考慮相聯系。”要求填寫形容詞, 我們要考慮其搭配與其修飾成分。空格處搭配介詞for, 并且修飾“長遠考慮”。因此D選項最符合語境要求。
4. [標準答案] [C]optimism
[選項分析] [A]個人主義 [B] 現代主義 [C] 樂觀主義 [D] 現實主義 本題考查同后綴的名詞辨析。根據原文主旨，探討“happy people”與公司的關系。那么，衡量四個選項，只有C選項符合主旨要求。
5. [標準答案] [D]change
[選項分析] [A]發出回聲 [B] 想念，錯過 [C] 破壞 [D] 改變 根據原文語境，“would 5 the way companies invested.”本題考查動賓搭配，賓語為“公司投資的方式”只有D選項搭配最為合理。
[選項分析] [A]想象 [B] 衡量，測量 [C] 發明 [D] 假定，設想 “So they compared U.S. cities’average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.”譯為“他們把蓋洛普咨詢公司所_____的美國城市平均幸福指數與該地區的上市公司投資活躍度進行對比。” 根據原文語境，蓋洛普咨詢公司所做的應該是一個“既定事實”所以排除ACD。因此，B選項為最佳選項。
[選項分析] [A]確信的 [B] 奇怪的 [C] 不幸運的 [D] 經常的 本題為固定搭配“sure enough” 譯為“足以肯定的是，”
[選項分析] [A]廣告的 [B] 劃分的 [C] 課稅過重的 [D]位于總部的 根據原文“ firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8 . ”譯為“足以肯定的是，公司投資與研發力度與公司______的幸福指數相關。”in which 引導表示地點的定語從句，先行詞為area.對比四個選項，ABC不足以說明此地點的真實含義。因此，D選項，搭配前文area,構成“總部所在地”最為合理。
[選項分析] [A]解釋 [B] 夸大 [C] 概述[D]重點強調 根據原文“…or ould something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D?” A選項 “explain”常和后文 “why” 搭配使用。
[選項分析] [A]階段 [B] 因素 [C] 等級[D]方法 根據原文語境“To find out, the researchers controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales…”本題中，破折號后面 “大小，產業，銷售”這些都是 “讓公司有更多投資的”因素。因此，B選項最符合原文語境。
11.[標準答案] [A] desirable
[選項分析] 該空填的是形容詞，用來修飾前面的名詞place,并且在意義上也是對后面like growth in wages or population的解釋，可以看出來應該是填褒義詞，并且能修飾place.所以只有[A]desirable合適的 符合文章。[B]social 社交的 [C]reputable 受尊敬的 [D]reliable 可依靠的。
12. [標準答案] [B]held
[選項分析] 該句算是這一段的總結句，該段整體在描述幸福與投資之間的關系，而這一link就只能得出了，只有[B]held ”得出”符合語境。A resumed “重新開始”，C emerge “浮現”，D broke “破壞”。
13.[標準答案] [A] attribute
[選項分析]該空是一個which引導的定語從句的謂語動詞所在地，動詞的賓語就是前面的主句，強調“幸福與投資之間的關系尤其適用于新公司”這一結論與后面“所做決定會偏草率”之間的關系，能看出是一個因果關系，因此答案選擇[A]attribute 與to 搭配表示“歸因于……”，而[B]assign to表示“指派”[C]transfer to“轉移到”[D]compare to“與……比較”均不符合題意。
14.[標準答案] [D] experienced
[選項分析] 此處很簡單，前面有一個并列連詞and, 與前面的young一致修飾managers,強調新公司的領導年輕并缺乏經驗，只有[D]experienced最合適。
15. [標準答案] [C] also
16. [標準答案] [D]equally
[選項分析] 這題是考察副詞修飾spread, 但是更要注意的是該句“這種關系在員工幸福指數_____的公司尤為明顯。公司似乎樂于投資那些相對快樂的員工所在的部門，而不是那些不快樂的部門。”中該空與后面的inequality形成復現關系，所以很容易判斷出答案選擇[D]equally。
17. [標準答案] [C] while
18. [標準答案] [C]hints
[選項分析] 該題可以看出是考察動詞與at的固定搭配，arrive at是“到達，抵達”，jump at是“撲向;欣然接受”hint at是“暗示” strike at是“襲擊，攻擊”，文章中的at least 和that possibility論證了這是一種可能，只有hint at有這層含義。
19. [標準答案] [A]shape
[選項分析] 根據上下文應該選一個“影響”未來看法含義的動詞，[B]是“再發現”[C]是“使簡化，使單純”[D]是“分享”所以可以均可以排除，A 是“塑造，形成，影響”，所以A項是最佳答案。
20. [標準答案] [B]lean towards
[考點分析] 本空考察動詞詞組，且該詞組詞義應與and前面意思保持一致，且作用對象為研發。[A]pray for 祈禱 [B]lean towards 傾向 [C]give away 放棄，泄露 [D]send out 放出，給予。只有[B]選項能表達一種遞進含義。
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Directions：Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
It’s true that high-school coding classes aren’t essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science.
However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it’s not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers — but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.
Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.
The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that’s become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but “we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in,” said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.
The students in the Flatiron class probably won’t drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the “Ruby on Rails” language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn — how to think logically through a problem and
organize the results — apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.
Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers — in their pockets, in their offices, in their homes — for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want — the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that — the better.
21. Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to____.
A. complete future job training
B. remodel the way of thinking
C. formulate logical hypotheses
D. perfect artwork production
22. In delivering lessons for high-schoolers, Flatiron has considered their____.
B. academic backgrounds
C. career prospects
23. Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will____.
A. help students learn other computer languages
B. have to be upgraded when new technologies come
C. need improving when students look for jobs
D. enable students to make big quick money
24. According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to____.
A. compete with a future army of programmers
B. stay longer in the information technology industry
C. become better prepared for the digitalized world
D. bring forth innovative computer technologies
25. The word “coax” (Line4, Para.6) is closest in meaning to____.
21 答案 B remodel the way of thinking.
解析：此題是文中人物觀點題。根據Cortina定位到第二段前三句。Cortina認為盡早接觸計算機科學是有益的。第三句It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. 譯為在轉變思維程序方面小孩不像年齡較大的學生一樣困難，即B remodel the way of thinking 轉變思維方式即為同義替換。
22 答案 D interest
23 答案 A help students learn other computer languages
解析：文中人物觀點題。題干問的是Deborah Seehorn認為在Flatiron這里所學到的技能將能怎么樣，據此定位到第五段But處，和題干基本一致，該句指出“But the skills they learn…appl to any coding language”，意思是他們學到的技能可以應用于任何編碼語言。對比答案選項，A選項的意思是“幫助學生學習其他的計算機語言”屬于原文定位處的同義替換。
24 答案 C become better prepared for the digitalized world
解析：細節題。題干指出：根據最后一段，Flatiron的學生被期望去干什么。據此定位到最后一段的These kids are going to be處，是題干的同義復現。定位句“These kids are…be surrounded by computers for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think…….the better.”，意思是學生們越早學越好。C選項“為數字化的未來做更好的準備”是同義概述。
25 答案 B persuade
解析：詞義句意題，結合上下文來解題。根據coax此單詞，定位到最后一段最后一句“how to coax the machine into producing what they want”，考察固定搭配“persuade…into…”。A選項挑戰，B選項勸服，C選項使恐慌，D選項誤導。考生做題時一定要注意結合上下文來推測生詞的詞義，這是命題人的出題 規律。
Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands—once lent red to the often gray landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species’ historic range.
The crash was a major reason the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened. “The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation,” said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered,” a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats. But Ashe and others argued that the“threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken’s habitat.
Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range—wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat. The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat, USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years. And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states” remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species，” Ashe said.
Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court Not surprisingly, doesn’t go far enough “The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction,” says biologist Jay Lininger.
26. The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____
[A]its drastically decreased population
[B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage
[C]a desperate appeal from some biologists
[D]the insistence of private landowners
27.The “threatened” tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____
[A]was a give-in to governmental pressure
[B]would involve fewer agencies in action
[C]granted less federal regulatory power
[D]went against conservation policies
28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____
[A]agree to pay a sum for compensation
[B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
[C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job
[D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations
29.According to Ashe， the leading role in managing the species in______
[A]the federal government
[B]the wildlife agencies
30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______
[B]the win-win rhetoric
[D]the plan under challenge
26 答案 A its drastically decreased population
解析：此題是原因細節題。根據關鍵詞定位到第一段But前后關于lesser prairie chickens 數量2million和22,000的強烈對比。此外第二段第二句“the lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation”都可以得知A its drastically decreased population 數量的急劇下降為正確答案。
27 答案 C granted less federal regulatory powers
解析：此題是原因細節題。根據關鍵詞定位到第二段第四句，They had …, a state that gives federal officials greater regulatory power. 而But 之后是截然相反的事實，即政府授予了更少的管理權。故而C granted less federal regulatory powers為正確答案。
28 答案 A agree to pay a sum for compensation
解析：推斷題。題干問的是從第三段推出來：無意傷害的那些人是不會被檢舉的如果怎么樣。根據題干定位到第三段首句“it would not prosecute….as long as ….”，題干中問的if即原文的as long as的同意替換，原文as long as的意思是：只要他們簽署了計劃。下一句說道，該計劃要求個體和企業去支付基金。對應選項A選項“贊同支付賠償”屬于同義替換。
29 答案 D the states
解析：此題是細節題。根據關鍵詞定位到第三段最后一句the idea is to let the“states”remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species, Ashe said. 其中in the driver’s seat對應題干中的the leading role, 故而D states為正確答案。
30 答案 C environmental groups
解析：文中人物觀點題。題干問的是Jay Lininger最可能支持誰，大寫人名定位到末段最后一句。最后一句提到：生物學家Jay Lininger說道聯邦政府要把責任推給導致鳥類滅絕的企業，顯然是對政府和企業的反對。再往前看一句，指出：企業團體和政府部門觀點一致，環境學家與其觀點恰巧一致。因此，Jay Lininger最支持環境團體的觀點了。